No. 101 - State Greenhouse Gas Programs: An Economic and Scientific Analysis - Summary (ppt)
Economic activity migrates from countries and states that impose emission controls to those that do not, since the latter now have lower energy costs and/or fewer regulatory burdens. Leakage rates will vary widely depending on the type of program and from state to state based on a variety of factors. Attempts to impose higher fuel economy standards, for example, would have a "leakage" rate of 100 percent.