Research & Commentary: Survey Results Show Room for Growth with Kentucky’s Education Opportunity Account Program

Published July 28, 2022

Results from a March 2022 survey from EdChoice and EdChoice Kentucky show private schools in the Bluegrass State are more than ready to accommodate the soon-to-be launched Education Opportunity Account (EOA) tax-credit funded education savings account (ESA) program, and that expanding the program to more children in the coming years should not be difficult.

The EOA program will launch with the 2022–23 school year and is open to students from families earning below 175 percent of the federal threshold for free- and reduced-price lunch, which was $49,025 for a family of four in 2021–22. However, the program is currently only open to children in Boone, Campbell, Daviess, Fayette, Hardin, Jefferson, Kenton, and Warren counties. The budget cap on the program is $25 million, with an account deposit cap of $4,700, meaning roughly 5,300 children could make use of the program if all scholarships were funded to the maximum amount.

Information from the 88 private schools taking part in the survey led the researchers to conclude there are roughly 6,600 open seats at these schools alone, and 19,600 open seats throughout the commonwealth as a whole. Further, 17 percent of the surveyed schools said they were not aware of the EOA program before taking the survey, but 97 percent of schools said they would participate in the program if it were available to them. These results show the potential room to expand the EOA program in the future.

Copious empirical research on school choice programs such as EOA makes clear these programs offer families improved access to high-quality schools that meet their children’s unique needs and circumstances, and that these programs improve academic performance and attainment and deliver a quality education at lower cost than traditional public schools.

Additionally, education choice benefits public school students and taxpayers by increasing competition, decreasing segregation, and improving civic values and practices. Research also shows students at private schools are less likely than their public school peers to experience problems such as alcohol abuse, bullying, drug use, fighting, gang activity, racial tension, theft, vandalism, and weapon-based threats. There is also a strong causal link suggesting private school choice programs improve the mental health of participating students.

Further, Kentucky’s public schools are habitually failing the state’s children. In 2019, only 40 percent of public school fourth-graders and 29 percent of eighth-graders tested “proficient” to grade level in mathematics on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) examination, colloquially known as the “Nation’s Report Card.” Just 35 percent of fourth-graders and 33 percent of eighth-graders tested “proficient” in reading. Essentially, and embarrassingly, the commonwealth’s public schools are failing to educate roughly 7 out of 10 Kentucky children to grade-level proficiency in reading and math.

It is probably for all these reasons, and also because teacher unions have repeatedly played politics with school closings during the COVID-19 pandemic in direct conflict with students’ best interests, that education choice programs like ESAs are more popular with parents than ever before. Polling by EdChoice released in September 2021 found 78 percent support for ESAs among the general public and 84 percent among current school parents. These findings are mirrored in the American Federation for Children’s eighth-annual National School Choice Poll, released in March 2022, which found 77 percent support for ESA programs.

Kentucky legislators would do a great service to their constituents and the commonwealth’s children by considering expanding the EOA program statewide for greater participation. Today and in the years to come, the goal of public education in the Bluegrass State should be to allow all parents to choose which schools their children attend, require every school to compete for every student who walks through its doors, and make sure every child can attend a quality school.

The following documents provide more information on ESA’s and education choice.

Exploring Kentucky’s Private Education Sector
This report synthesizes information about the state’s private schools from a survey conducted by EdChoice Kentucky in partnership with EdChoice.

The 123s of School Choice (2020 Edition)
This report from EdChoice is an in-depth review of the available research on private school choice programs in America. Areas of study include: private school choice program participant test scores, program participant attainment, parent satisfaction, public school students’ test scores, civic values and practices, racial/ethnic integration and fiscal effects.

A Win-Win Solution: The Empirical Evidence on School Choice (Fourth Edition)
This paper by EdChoice details how a vast body of research shows educational choice programs improve academic outcomes for students and schools, saves taxpayers money, reduces segregation in schools, and improves students’ civic values. This edition brings together a total of 100 empirical studies examining these essential questions in one comprehensive report.

Fiscal Effects of School Choice
This EdChoice analysis of 40 private educational choice programs in 19 states plus D.C. summarizes the facts and evidence on the fiscal effects of educational choice programs across the United States and finds they have provided up to $28.3 billion in net fiscal savings to state and local taxpayers through Fiscal Year 2018. The programs in the analysis include three education savings accounts programs (ESAs), 19 school voucher programs, and 18 tax-credit scholarship programs.

The Public Benefit of Private Schooling: Test Scores Rise When There Is More of It
This Policy Analysis from the Cato Institute examines the effect increased access to private schooling has had on international student test scores in 52 countries. The Cato researchers found that a 1 percentage point increase in the share of private school enrollment would lead to moderate increases in students’ math, reading, and science achievement.

The Effects of School Choice on Mental Health
This study from Corey DeAngelis at the Cato Institute and Angela K. Dills of Western Carolina University empirically examines the relationship between school choice and mental health. It finds that states adopting broad-based voucher programs and charter schools witness declines in adolescent suicides and suggests that private schooling reduces the number of times individuals are seen for mental health issues.

Child Safety Accounts: Protecting Our Children through Parental Freedom
In this Heartland Policy Brief, Vicki Alger, senior fellow at the Independent Women’s Forum and research fellow at the Independent Institute, and Heartland Policy Analyst Tim Benson detail the prevalence of bullying, harassment, and assault taking place in America’s public schools and the difficulties for parents in having their child moved from a school that is unsafe for them. Alger and Benson propose a Child Safety Account program, which would allow parents to immediately have their child moved to a safe school – private, parochial, or pub­lic – as soon as parents feel the public school their child is currently attending is too dangerous to their child’s physical or emotion­al health.


Nothing in this Research & Commentary is intended to influence the passage of legislation, and it does not necessarily represent the views of The Heartland Institute. For further information on this subject, visit School Reform News, The Heartland Institute’s website, and PolicyBot, Heartland’s free online research database.

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